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  • 1. 阅读理解

        As Artificial Intelligence(AI) becomes increasingly sophisticated(复杂的), there are growing concerns that robots could become a threat. This danger can be avoided, according to computer science Professor Stuart Russell, if we figure out how to turn human values into a programmable code.

        Russell argues that as robots take on more complicated tasks, it's necessary to translate our morals into AI language.

        For example, if a robot does chores around the house, you wouldn't want it to put the pet cat in the oven to make dinner for the hungry children. "You would want that robot preloaded with a good set of values," said Russell.

        Some robots are already programmed with basic human values. For example, mobile robots have been programmed to keep a comfortable distance from humans. Obviously there are cultural differences, but if you were talking to another person and they came up close in your personal space, you wouldn't think that's the kind of thing a properly brought-up person would do.

        It will be possible to create more sophisticated moral machines, if only we can find a way to set out human values as clear rules.

        Robots could also learn values from drawing patterns from large sets of data on human behaviour. They are dangerous only if programmers are careless.

        The biggest concern with robots going against human values is that human beings fail to so sufficient testing and they've produced a system that will break some kind of taboos(禁忌).

        One simple check would be to program a robot to check the correct course of action with a human when presented with an unusual situation.

        If the robot is unsure whether an animal is suitable for the microwave, it has the opportunity to stop, send out beeps(嘟嘟声), and ask for directions from a human. If we humans aren't quite sure about a decision, we go and ask somebody else.

        The most difficult step in programming values will be deciding exactly what we believe in moral, and how to create a set of ethical rules. But if we come up with an answer, robots could be good for humanity.

    1. (1)How do robots learn human values?
    2. (2)What will a well-programmed robot do when facing an unusual situation?
    3. (3)What is most difficult to do when we turn human values into a programmable code?
  • 1. 阅读理解

        We don't know how different our future will be in the year 2050. We can only try to imagine it.

        At first we think about the human relationship. In the year 2050, we will use computers almost every day. We will be making new friends through the Internet—even our husbands or wives will be met in this way. It will be much faster and easier for us. On the other hand, our relationships with people won't be as important as they are today—we will feel a little lonely.

        Computers will also help us in many other activities in 2050. For example, they will be used by the children at school to make their learning easier. In addition, there will be much more other machines which will play a similar role as computers, like robots which will do the housework for us.

        Spending holiday will also be completely different. Travelling to other planets or to the moon will be available for everyone. Means of transport will, of course, change, too. We will be using solar-powered cars, which will be much more environmentally friendly.

        We could expect that the faster technological progress would lead to a more polluted environment. But it isn't true. We will pay more attention to protecting the environment. And, scientists will probably find cures for many dangerous diseases, like cancer or AIDS. Therefore, our surroundings as well as health will be in better condition.

        Although we can't predict the exact changes which will be made in the world, we often think about them. We worry about our and our children's future; we have expectations, hopes as well as fears. But I think we should be rather sanguine about our future. We should be happy and believe good things will happen.

    1. (1)Why will people probably feel a little lonely in 2050?
    2. (2)The underlined word "sanguine" in the last paragraph most probably means "        ".
    3. (3)What does the passage mainly talk about?
  • 1. 阅读理解

        Many automobile makers present their newest designs at car shows around the world. Many designers seek to create the car of the future. One device that is popular among car manufacturers(生产商) is an autopilot. Autopilot permits a car to drive itself without human control.

        A recent car show in Geneva, Switzerland also presented other possible designs, including cars manufactured in 3-D printers.

        Rinspeed is a Swiss design company. It showed a vehicle based on the US electric car Tesla Model S, but the Rinspeed car includes a large television and an espresso coffee maker.

        Frank Rinderknecht is the CEO of Rinspeed. He says he does not want to just sit and watch the steering wheel(方向盘) turn as he rides in a car with autopilot.

        "I want to ride; I want to sleep, relax, watch movies, news, anything else. So that's the vision which we have. One day on the boring motorway traffic, you just do anything which makes your life better," said Rinderknecht.

        One of the most interesting ideas presented at the show is a car built on a 3-D printer. The German engineering firm EDAG designed the car. The body of the vehicle called "Genesis" is printed in one piece from a material called thermoplastic(热塑性塑料).

        Christoph Horvath is spokesman for EDAG.

        "To create a car without the use of any tool. This would be a real revolution for the industry," said Horvath.

        EDAG says it based its design on a turtle shell. The company says the design provides the right amount of strength and firmness.

        Other automakers did not look so far into the future. Czech automaker Skoda presented its "Vision C" model vehicle. The car has an environmentally friendly natural gas engine.

        Jo Davidson is a company spokeswoman. She says the car releases very low levels of the pollutant gas CO2. Ms Davidson says the "Vision C" plans to be launched in two years.

    1. (1)Why is an autopilot popular among car manufacturers?
    2. (2)What is the common feature of the cars?
    3. (3)Where can we most probably read this text?
    4. (4)What do we know about the vehicle called "Genesis"?
  • 1. 语法填空

        One day, a father and his son were walking with their horse. An old man saw them and said, "You {#blank#}1{#/blank#}(suppose) to ride a horse, not to walk it!" The father then put his son on the horse.

        Soon they passed a group of people, {#blank#}2{#/blank#}said, "That's a lazy boy! He gets to ride the horse while his father walks." The father decided to take his son off and get on the horse himself. {#blank#}3{#/blank#}they kept going, they came upon two {#blank#}4{#/blank#}(passer-by). One said, "You are a {#blank#}5{#/blank#}(self) man! Your son has to walk while you get to ride!" The man then reached down and put his son on the horse with him.{#blank#}6{#/blank#}a while, they entered a town. Everyone started to laugh at them,{#blank#}7{#/blank#}(say), "You are too heavy for that horse!" The father and his son didn't know what {#blank#}8{#/blank#}(do).

        Finally, they decided to carry the horse. When they came to a bridge, the horse {#blank#}9{#/blank#}(fall) to the water. "If you try to please {#blank#}10{#/blank#}," the father told his son, "in the end, you will please no one." Then they went home.

  • 1. 阅读理解

        The great-grandmother is learning English with the help of her family when she is at the age of 91. She hopes to use the language at next year's Olympic Games in Tokyo. Takamizawa was one of the more than 200, 00 people who requested to volunteer for Tokyo's 2020 Games. English is not required for service, but it is a useful skill for volunteers to have.

        But Takamizawa had not been able to learn the language when she was young. Takamizawa said that she was in high school when World War Two started. She said, "In my second year there, English was banned because it was the enemy language."

        Takamizawa said her grandchildren helped persuade her that she was not too old to learn. "When I talked to my grandchildren about my wish, they said, 'It's not too late. We will teach you one word a day' ". Natsuko is Takamizawa's granddaughter and main English teacher. Natsuko sends a new English word to her grandmother's phone every day. They also often work together directly on phrases that Takamizawa will need for the Olympics. "Welcome to Tokyo, this is the Olympic stadium, how can I help you?" Takamizawa answers when asked to say an English phrase she has learned. Natsuko explains that she wanted to give her grandmother something to enjoy. "I can clearly see her English is getting better. It's my joy now."

        The EF English Proficiency Index is a measure of the level of English spoken in a country. Japan ranks 49th among countries where English is not the first language. This situation is slowly changing as younger generations welcome English. However, Takamizawa believes real change will not happen unless Japanese people become more open to the rest of the world. With around 500 days to go until the games begin, the whole Takamizawa family is ready to welcome the world to Tokyo.

    1. (1)Why couldn't Takamizawa learn English when she was young?
    2. (2)What can we know from the third paragraph?
    3. (3)What does the underlined phrase "This situation" in Paragraph 4 refer to?
    4. (4)What is the main idea of the passage?
  • 1. 阅读理解

        You can either travel or read, but either your body or soul must be on the way. The popular saying has inspired many people to read or go sightseeing. Traveling just like reading, is a refreshing journey from the busy world. Books, brain food, can keep you company on your travel.

    On the Road, 1957, by Jack Kerouac

        The book is a globally popular spiritual guide book about youth. The main character in the book drives across the US continent with several young people and finally reaches Mexico. After the exhausting and exciting trip, the characters in the book begin to realize the meaning of life. The book can be a good partner with you to explore the United States.

        Life is Elsewhere, 1975, by Milan Kundera

        Jean-Jacques Rousseau once said, "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains." The book tells a young artist's romantic but miserable life, about how he reads, dreams, and has a relationship. Experience the artist's passionate life in the book during a trip to Central Europe. The book invites you to deeply reflect on your current life.

        The Stories of Sahara, 1967, by Sanmao

        The book narrates the author's simple but adventurous life in the Sahara Desert, which seems a desolate and dull place. The fancy natural scenery and life there, along with the author's romantic and intensive emotion, will inspire you to explore the mysterious land. Reading the book is like participating in a dialogue with the author, who is sincere and humorous.

        Lotus, 2006 by Annbaby

        This novel set in Tibet, tells three people's stories, each with their unique characteristics. It reveals modern people's emotions and inner life, their confusion about love, and exploration of Buddhism. The book is a good partner to bring you to the sacred land Tibet.

    1. (1)Which book is about the exploration of life value through a journey?
    2. (2)Whose book could be the most suitable for your trip to Germany?
    3. (3)What can we learn from the text?
  • 1. 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。

        Donald lived in three different foster homes and changed schools with each move. The experience left him 1and often dropping out of school, making Donald lose all 2for school. Then he 3 Mr. Felipe, the CIS site coordinator (协调员) at his school.

        Mr. Felipe 4 developed a plan to meet Donald's needs. He 5 school supplies and clothes for Donald and encouraged him to join the schools karate (空手道) program. After months of working with Mr. Felipe, Donald's 6 changed. He became more 7and optimistic. He 8 making friends at school and building 9 with his teachers and classmates. Meanwhile, his grades 10 as well.

        "My mom has 11 that my attitude has changed a lot, and my grades are much better too. I like to come to the CIS classroom because it is 12 to be here. Mr. Felipe gives us snacks and provides school supplies for us. We work in the garden and we get the 13 we need to study and do our homework. I feel happy and motivated when I come to this 14."

        For Donald, Mr. Felipe is the person who changed his life. "I was in foster care when I was 4-5 years old and was 15 from my brother for part of the time. I'm back with my family now and happy to have them in my 16," said Donald. "But I still 17 that time and the bad depression I felt. At school, art and football helped me forget and let it all 18. It is Mr. Felipe who helped me when I was 19. Because of him I became more serious about 20 and work in general. "

    (1)
    A . curious B . depressed C . satisfied D . innocent
    (2)
    A . reason B . chance C . confidence D . motivation
    (3)
    A . met B . found C . led D . urged
    (4)
    A . suddenly B . immediately C . strangely D . actually
    (5)
    A . mentioned B . tried C . purchased D . reserved
    (6)
    A . attitude B . study C . ambition D . future
    (7)
    A . ambitious B . generous C . flexible D . outgoing
    (8)
    A . missed B . continued C . resisted D . began
    (9)
    A . networks B . targets C . relationships D . trends
    (10)
    A . shrank B . changed C . improved D . erupted
    (11)
    A . noticed B . argued C . claimed D . hoped
    (12)
    A . outstanding B . fun C . challenging D . bearable
    (13)
    A . tool B . help C . money D . love
    (14)
    A . program B . design C . experiment D . research
    (15)
    A . put away B . knocked off C . split up D . turned down
    (16)
    A . profession B . life C . emotion D . experience
    (17)
    A . treasure B . manage C . keep D . remember
    (18)
    A . go B . heal C . flow D . tolerate
    (19)
    A . angry B . concerned C . upset D . ambiguous
    (20)
    A . hobbies B . relaxation C . sports D . school
  • 1. 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

        Mochi (年糕) is a traditional food popular in Chinese and Japanese cooking, made from {#blank#}1{#/blank#} (special) treated rice. It is often presented in the form of a round cake, and is traditionally exchanged at the New Year.

    Mochi is made by {#blank#}2{#/blank#} (put) sticky rice into water overnight, cooking it and pounding it into a sticky paste. The paste is made into shapes ranging from simple to complex rounds, some of {#blank#}3{#/blank#} are stuffed with sweet fillings. Mochi is often decorated with {#blank#}4{#/blank#} (flower) or fruits, especially when it is exchanged as {#blank#}5{#/blank#} gift at celebrations like birthdays and the New Year.

        Traditionally, wooden mortars (臼) and pestles (杵) {#blank#}6{#/blank#} (use) to pound mochi rice. Fresh mochi is usually cooked and served warm {#blank#}7{#/blank#} a variety of sauces. Steaming and boiling are both popular preparations in Japan, along with cooking. Fresh mochi is soft but it{#blank#}8{#/blank#} (hard) quickly. Prepacked mochi blocks, flattened and cut into square pieces or shaped into rounds, are available at grocery stores. Mochi can go bad easily, so it's {#blank#}9{#/blank#} (good) to cook soon than to keep it in your fridge.

        Hard mochi pieces can be cooked, deep-fried, boiled, and more. Cooked mochi is very sticky, so be careful not {#blank#}10{#/blank#} (choke) on it.

  • 1. 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

        Our world is more connected than ever before thanks to technology. {#blank#}1{#/blank#} Indeed, it is becoming increasingly important that we all learn how to deal with this painful feeling.

        You should be determined to actively end your loneliness. We often end up passively waiting for someone else to make us feel less lonely. You may feel that your loneliness indicates that nobody is willing to connect with you. And there is nothing you can do about it. But that is far from the truth. {#blank#}2{#/blank#}

        You should find reasons why you are lonely. We all feel lonely for different reasons. Some of us have no one to interact with on a consistent basis and that's why we feel lonely. You may feel that the people in your life don't share your thoughts and ideas. {#blank#}3{#/blank#} you need to identify it. And you know exactly how to handle your loneliness.

    {#blank#}4{#/blank#} People who are lonely tend to fall into destructive mental habits. They try to avoid the pain of not being understood and being disconnected by not giving people an opportunity to understand and connect with them. So the solution is to share your thoughts and feelings with others and to do so openly and fearlessly.

        You should find people who share your interests. {#blank#}5{#/blank#} everybody is interested in something. And just as there are many interests, there are many people who share those interests. Find what interests you and connect with others on that basis.

    A. Whatever the reason is,

    B. When you feel really lonely,

    C. If you want to make friends with them,

    D. Whether it's coin collecting or video games,

    E. You should be open about your thoughts, ideas and desires.

    F. Ending loneliness is something that you can and should pursue actively.

    G. However, more and more of us find ourselves having to stand loneliness.

  • 1. 阅读理解

        A robot created by Washington State University (WSU) scientists could help elderly people with dementia (痴呆) and other limitations live independently in their own homes.

        The Robot Activity Support System or RAS, uses sensors installed in a WSU smart home to determine where its residents are, what they are doing and when they need assistance with daily activities. It navigates (定位) through rooms and around obstacles to find people on its own, provides video instructions on how to do simple tasks and can even lead its owner to objects like their medication or a snack in the kitchen.

    "RAS combines the convenience of a mobile robot with the activity detection technology of a WSU smart home to provide assistance in the moment, as the need for help is detected," said Bryan Minor, a postdoctoral researcher in the WSU School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

        Currently, an estimated 50 percent of adults over the age of 85 need assistance with every day activities such as preparing meals and taking medication and the annual cost for this assistance in the US is nearly $2 trillion. With the number of adults over 85 expected to triple by 2050, researchers hope that technologies like RAS and the WSU smart home will relieve some of the financial strain on the healthcare system by making it easier for older adults to live alone.

        RAS is the first robot researchers have tried to incorporate into their smart home environment. They recently published a study in the journal Cognitive Systems Research that demonstrates how RAS could make life easier for older adults struggling to live independently.

        "While we are still in an early stage of development, our initial results with RAS have been promising," Minor said. "The next step in the research will be to test RAS' performance with a group of older adults to get a better idea of what prompts, video reminders and other preferences they have regarding the robot."

    1. (1)How does RAS serve elderly people?
    2. (2)What can we know about RAS?
    3. (3)What's Minor's attitude toward the future of RAS?
    4. (4)What can be a suitable title for the text?
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